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We've saved this car for you! Alerts Set! WSJ: Are you trying to dispel notions that the guitar is difficult to play, or just trying to get the word out about new products? We have a retention problem. They buy, on average, five to seven guitars, a lot of them Fenders. They buy multiple amps, they buy multiple accessories, they drive the hardware sales of the business. And we have women in our artists and repertoire department for the first time.
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WSJ: Is Fender aligning more closely to country artists than it has in the past? We have a whole team down in Nashville that is kind of the center for our family of country and worship artists, which is also a very important sector of the market now. We have a dedicated team to help ensure that artists are getting the right gear to fit their sound or to help find their sounds. We offer varying levels of support on a per artist basis whether it be gratis product for artists included in campaigns or artist pricing to help offset the high costs of touring. We also have working relationships with music directors and worship leaders and are helping them grow their programs by offering the best level of support possible.
The vast majority of players are employing technology in the recording process and the development of music. China, the most populous country in the world, is now also the world's largest greenhouse gas emitter and faces severe air pollution.
Historical dependence on coal is dictated by its accounting for Development of other domestic fossil fuels is limited, but imports of natural gas along with rapid growth in renewable are forecast [ Dong et al. Despite this, there is a common sense that economic growth and material wealth is being achieved at too high a cost to the environment [ Chan and Yao , ]. The Chinese government had already made very strong pledges to significantly reduce coal consumption creating a huge challenge in replacing coal with alternative energy. These are entirely consistent with the bilateral carbon emission reduction agreement with President Obama in November that includes cooperation on carbon capture technology [ U.
China's commitment to reduce greenhouse gas emissions does motivate it to explore CO 2 removal technology. The modern equivalent is the Three Gorges Dam , one of the largest engineering project in China, which required the displacement of more than 1 million people while saving up to million tons of CO 2 emissions per year by producing electricity from hydropower [ Liu et al.
It served as a major transportation artery and prosperous settlements thrived along its course [ Luo et al. China has 50, local communities engaged in cloud seeding.
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Such weather modification may be erroneously seen as geoengineering. But the objective for the communities is to prevent damage from violent storms rather than to make for blue sky days [ Edney and Symons , ]. The motivation for cloud seeding are thus entirely local, and immediate in action, hence it fails the definitions of geoengineering [ Keith , ; Shepherd et al. Cloud seeding requires large quantities of precipitatable water in the sky, hence there is no question using it to make rain over deserts or move storm tracks, both of which may be reasonable objectives of geoengineering.
However, cloud seeding is an example of how many competing local interests in a particular managed weather outcome are managed, and may provide useful analogues with international governance aspects of geoengineering. The examples discussed show how China has pursued what could be seen as geoengineering, but of the uncontroversial CO 2 removal type rather than the SRM approach [ Weng and Chen , ]. Land use change and afforestation in this respect have moved the environment back toward sustainable carrying capacities, and hence along traditional philosophical paths Box 1.
CO 2 capture projects have received funding for many years, though they are still in the earliest phases of development and certainly not commercial ventures as yet. The decade of central government discussion, controversy and subsequent reputational damage surrounding the building of the Three Gorges Dam [ Liu et al. However, China has just decided to support research into simulations of climate and impact studies under geoengineering climates.
Experience in dealing with cloud seeding may also be relevant to geoengineering governance. So will China take a lead role in SRM to achieve the blue sky dream? However, we have argued that this is a misleading view and that both the historic philosophy and the present political establishment suggests that this is unlikely to be the case.
It is clear that the Chinese tend to view the whole landscape as more akin to a garden than as an entity separate from the people it supports. This may also indicate a willingness to adopt geoengineering—and indeed there is clear evidential support for this via the intensive afforestation programs discussed above, and the ongoing investment in CO 2 capture and storage. There is much less support for SRM which presents the moral hazard of potentially allowing more fossil fuels to be burnt creating more pollution and is perhaps psychologically associated with air pollution, which in common with stratospheric aerosol injection, leads to haze and white, rather than blue, skies.
If some climate emergency were to befall parts of China—such as potentially disastrous flooding, that could be convincingly shown to be ameliorated by geoengineering, then of course China as any other nations, would be strongly tempted by it. Chinese ecosystems occupy a wide variety of climates but many of these are relatively continental, with large seasonal cycles and interannual variability in temperature and precipitation. A wider range of natural climate variability leads to resilience, for example, continental glaciers and permafrost are much more stable under climate change than those in maritime environments [e.
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Ever increasing numbers of Chinese reside in cities along the eastern seaboard that are only a few metres above sea level, and hence large populations and vast financial centers are vulnerable to rising sea levels and storm surges [ He et al. If these cities are threatened, then so will many others be across the world [ Nicholls et al. To prevent this requires that geoengineering would likely need to be generally agreed on internationally rather than done unilaterally—and even then may be of limited effectiveness [ Moore et al.
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Interestingly significantly more positive attitudes toward SRM geoengineering were found in surveys among Indian, Chinese, and Philippine students compared with students from Japan, Australia, and South Korea [ Sugiyama et al. China's stance on geoengineering is crucial as the largest developing countries. In fact, though all the above reasons are plausible, the reality is that research on geoengineering is still at very early stage. The knowledge basis required to support policy formulation and a transnational governance stance is quite weak. The general public and the bureaucracy have little knowledge or expertise on geoengineering.
Foci of Chinese research includes the basic processes of geoengineered climates [ Cao et al. China is taking a cautionary and open position on geoengineering, which is promising for international geoengineering governance. This involves promoting the philosophical view of human nature harmony where humans and nature are really part of just one system. This world view may well be shared in other countries with Confucian philosophical roots, such as Japan; something which could be explored through international surveys similar to those carried out by Sugiyama et al.
There may be arguments for China to want to adopt SRM early, such as reducing risk of climate impacts or to exert its growing technical and political strength. Authors thank for constructive comments from Janos Pasztor and three anonymous referees. There are no new data in the article.